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The proto-Mongol Khitan people also occupied parts of the region.
In 630 the Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir formed in the late-15th century.
The size, scope, and scale of the Gulag slave-labour camps remain subjects of much research and debate.
The Verkhoyansk Range was extensively glaciated in the Pleistocene, but the climate was too dry for glaciation to extend to low elevations.The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history.Their activity continued for a million years and some scientists consider it a possible cause of the "Great Dying" about 250 million years ago, During past millennia different groups of nomads - such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Xiongnu, the Scythians and the Uyghurs inhabited various parts of Siberia.At these low elevations are numerous valleys, many of them deep and covered with larch forest, except in the extreme north where the tundra dominates. The active layer tends to be less than one metre deep, except near rivers.The highest point in Siberia is the active volcano Klyuchevskaya Sopka, on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The West Siberian Plain consists mostly of Cenozoic alluvial deposits and is somewhat flat.